Singapore Tour 2018

The tour was held end of the year on 27th August, 2018 in Singapore.

The tour was successfully done by alone.

Very simple to roam in Singapore.

Very lawful & Helpful the peoples,

There many people Speak Malay but English is First Language, but also Indian Tamil And  Chinese Mandarin also spoken by few people.

One of the main attractive place in Singapore where many Tourists roam here and captured picture with this LION liberty as known Merlion Park-



At Marina Bay-


Another most silent and Lovely beach is Sentosa Island-

Then the most popular Scenery is Marina Bay Sands which attract all tourist. If you travel there at Early Evening so scenario is fantastic-

Another picture had been taken @ Orchard Road where all international and popular Shops available-


One more fantastic place is known as Singapore Flyer

This Picture had been taken at  The Maritime Experiential Museum

One more attraction is  Sentosa Merlion which Located at next to The Maritime Experiential Museum

There train system was amazing- Wherever you wanna go just follow some Unique color Like Blue,Red ,Green, Yellow, Khaki & Purple  but little bit Difficult too if you unfollow the color mistakenly train would bring you wrong destination.

Sunset during MCO in Malaysia

33th day of MCO in Malaysia,

Picture has been taken by Mavic pro, 52m altitude from the ground & controlling distance was 1156m.

Mavic Pro


Coronavirus disease 2019


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Other names
  • Coronavirus

Early names:

  • 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease
  • Novel coronavirus pneumonia[1][2]
  • Wuhan pneumonia[3][4]
COVID-19 symptoms
Symptoms of COVID-19
Specialty Infectious diseases
Symptoms Fever, cough, shortness of breath, none[5][6]
Complications Pneumoniaviral sepsisacute respiratory distress syndromekidney failure
Usual onset 2–14 days (typically 5) from exposure
Causes Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
Risk factors Travel, viral exposure
Diagnostic method rRT-PCR testingCT scan
Prevention Hand washingquarantinesocial distancing
Surgical masks are recommended by the WHO when taking care of an infected person, or if symptoms occur, to prevent the spread of disease. Other health authorities have different guidelines surrounding the use of masks to prevent COVID-19 infection.
Treatment Symptomatic and supportive
Frequency 1,429,437[7] confirmed cases
Deaths 82,074 (5.7% of confirmed cases)[7]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[8] The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[9][10] Common symptoms include fevercough and shortness of breath.[11] Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle paindiarrheasore throatloss of smell and abdominal pain.[5][12][13] While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[9][14] As of 8 April 2020, more than 1.42 million[7] cases have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories,[15] resulting in more than 82,000 deaths.[7] More than 300,000 people have recovered.[7]

The virus is mainly spread during close contact[a] and by small droplets produced when those infected cough, sneeze or talk.[6][16][17] These droplets may also be produced during breathing; however, they rapidly fall to the ground or surfaces and are not generally spread through the air over large distances.[6][18][19] People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then their face.[6][16] The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours.[20] It is most contagious during the first three days after onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease.[21] The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days, but may range from two to 14 days.[11][22] The standard method of diagnosis is by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab.[23] The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.[24][25]

Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washingsocial distancing (maintaining physical distance from others, especially from those with symptoms), covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow and keeping unwashed hands away from the face.[26][27] The use of masks is recommended for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers.[28] Recommendations for mask use by the general public vary, with some authorities recommending against their use, some recommending their use and others requiring their use.[29][30][31] Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19.[6] Management involves treatment of symptomssupportive careisolation and experimental measures.[32]

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)[33][34] on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[10] Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.[35]

File:Wikipedia-VideoWiki-Coronavirus disease 2019.webm

Video summary (script)

Signs and symptoms

Symptom[36] %
Fever 88
Dry cough 68
Fatigue 38
Sputum production 33
Loss of smell 15[37] to 30[13][38]
Shortness of breath 19
Muscle or joint pain 15
Sore throat 14
Headache 14
Chills 11
Nausea or vomiting 5
Nasal congestion 5
Diarrhoea 4 to 31[39]
Haemoptysis 0.9
Pink eyes 0.8

Those infected with the virus may be asymptomatic or develop flu-like symptoms, including fever, cough, fatigue and shortness of breath.[5][40][41] Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, confusion, difficulty waking and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present.[42] Less commonly, upper respiratory symptoms, such as sneezingrunny nose or sore throat may be seen. Symptoms such as nauseavomiting and diarrhoea have been observed in varying percentages.[39][43][44] Some cases in China initially presented only with chest tightness and palpitations.[45] In March 2020 there were reports indicating that loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) may be a common symptom among those who have mild disease,[13][38] although not as common as initially reported.[37] In some, the disease may progress to pneumoniamulti-organ failure and death.[9][14] In those who develop severe symptoms, time from symptom onset to needing mechanical ventilation is typically eight days.[46]

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment when a person is infected with the virus and the time when they develop symptoms. This is called the incubation period. The incubation period for COVID-19 is typically five to six days but may range from two to 14 days.[47][48] 97.5% of people who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days of infection.[49]

Reports indicate that not all who are infected develop symptoms, but their role in transmission is unknown.[50] Preliminary evidence suggests asymptomatic cases may contribute to the spread of the disease.[51][52] The proportion of infected people who do not display symptoms is currently unknown and being studied, with the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) reporting that 20% of all confirmed cases remained asymptomatic during their hospital stay.[52][53] China’s National Health Commission began including asymptomatic cases in its daily cases on 1 April, of the 166 infections on that day, 130 (78%) were asymptomatic.[54]



Cough/sneeze droplets visualised in dark background using Tyndall scattering

Respiratory droplets, produced when a man is sneezing

File:COVID19 in numbers- R0, the case fatality rate and why we need to flatten the curve.webm

A video discussing the basic reproduction number and case fatality rate in the context of the pandemic

Some details about how the disease is spread are still being determined.[16][17] The WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say it is primarily spread during close contact and by small droplets produced when people cough, sneeze or talk;[6][16] with close contact being within 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in).[6] A study in Singapore found that an uncovered cough can lead to droplets travelling up to 4.5 meters (15 feet).[55][56] A second study, produced during the 2020 pandemic, found that advice on the distance droplets could travel might be based on old 1930s research which ignored the protective effect and speed of the warm moist outbreath surrounding the droplets; it advised that droplets can travel around 7–8 metres.[57]

Respiratory droplets may also be produced while breathing out, including when talking. Though the virus is not generally airborne,[6][58] The National Academy of Science has suggested that bioaerosol transmission may be possible and air collectors positioned in the hallway outside of people’s rooms yielded samples positive for viral RNA.[59] The droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.[60] Some medical procedures such as intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may cause respiratory secretions to be aerosolised and thus result in airborne spread.[58] It may also spread when one touches a contaminated surface, known as fomite transmission, and then touches ones eyes, nose or mouth.[6] While there are concerns it may spread by feces, this risk is believed to be low.[6][16]

The virus is most contagious when people are symptomatic; while spread may be possible before symptoms appear, this risk is low.[6][16] The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) says while it is not entirely clear how easily the disease spreads, one person generally infects two to three others.[17]

The virus survives for hours to days on surfaces.[6][17] Specifically, the virus was found to be detectable for one day on cardboard, for up to three days on plastic and stainless steel and for up to four hours on copper.[20][61] This, however, varies based on the humidity and temperature.[62][63] Surfaces may be decontaminated with a number of solutions (within one minute of exposure to the disinfectant to achieve a 4 or more log reduction), including 78–95% ethanol (alcohol used in spirits), 70–100% 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol), the combination of 45% 2-propanol with 30% 1-propanol, 0.21% sodium hypochlorite (bleach), 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.23–7.5% povidone-iodine. Ordinary soap and detergent are also highly effective if correctly used; soap products attack the virus’ fatty protective layer, deactivating it, as well as freeing them from skin and other surfaces.[64] Other solutions, such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate (a surgical disinfectant), are less effective,[65] as are products advertised as killing bacteria which have little effect on a virus.


Illustration of SARSr-CoV virion

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, first isolated from three people with pneumonia connected to the cluster of acute respiratory illness cases in Wuhan.[66] All features of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus occur in related coronaviruses in nature.[67] Outside the human body, the virus is killed by household soap, which bursts its protective bubble.[68]

SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the original SARS-CoV.[69] It is thought to have a zoonotic origin. Genetic analysis has revealed that the coronavirus genetically clusters with the genus Betacoronavirus, in subgenus Sarbecovirus (lineage B) together with two bat-derived strains. It is 96% identical at the whole genome level to other bat coronavirus samples (BatCov RaTG13).[36] In February 2020, Chinese researchers found that there is only one amino acid difference in certain parts of the genome sequences between the viruses from pangolins and those from humans, however, whole-genome comparison to date found at most 92% of genetic material shared between pangolin coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, which is insufficient to prove pangolins to be the intermediate host.[70]


The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID-19 because the virus accesses host cells via the enzyme ACE2, which is most abundant in the type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a “spike” (peplomer) to connect to ACE2 and enter the host cell.[71] The density of ACE2 in each tissue correlates with the severity of the disease in that tissue and some have suggested that decreasing ACE2 activity might be protective,[72][73] though another view is that increasing ACE2 using angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective and that these hypotheses need to be tested.[74] As the alveolar disease progresses, respiratory failure might develop and death may follow.[73]

The virus also affects gastrointestinal organs as ACE2 is abundantly expressed in the glandular cells of gastricduodenal and rectal epithelium[75] as well as endothelial cells and enterocytes of the small intestine.[76]

The expanding part of the lungs, pulmonary alveoli, contain two main types of functioning cells. One cell, type I, absorbs from the air, i.e. gas exchange. The other, type II, produces surfactants, which serve to keep the lungs fluid, clean, infection free, etc. COVID-19 finds a way into a surfactant producing type II cell and smothers it by reproducing COVID-19 virus within it. Each type II cell which perishes to the virus causes an extreme reaction in the lungs. Fluids, pus and dead cell material flood the lung, causing the coronavirus pulmonary disease.[77]


Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testing

CDC rRT-PCR test kit for COVID-19[78]

The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.[79] The standard method of testing is real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).[80] The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab, however a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used.[23][81] Results are generally available within a few hours to two days.[82][83] Blood tests can be used, but these require two blood samples taken two weeks apart and the results have little immediate value.[84] Chinese scientists were able to isolate a strain of the coronavirus and publish the genetic sequence so laboratories across the world could independently develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect infection by the virus.[9][85][86] As of 4 April 2020, antibody tests (which may detect active infections and whether a person had been infected in the past) were in development, but not yet widely used.[87][88][89] The FDA approved the first point-of-care test on 21 March 2020 for use at the end of that month.[90]

Diagnostic guidelines released by Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University suggested methods for detecting infections based upon clinical features and epidemiological risk. These involved identifying people who had at least two of the following symptoms in addition to a history of travel to Wuhan or contact with other infected people: fever, imaging features of pneumonia, normal or reduced white blood cell count or reduced lymphocyte count.[24]

A March 2020 review concluded that chest X-rays are of little value in early stages, whereas CT scans of the chest are useful even before symptoms occur.[68] Typical features on CT include bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacificities with a peripheral, asymmetric and posterior distribution.[68] Subpleural dominancecrazy paving (lobular septal thickening with variable alveolar filling) and consolidation develop as the disease evolves.[91] As of March 2020, the American College of Radiology recommends that “CT should not be used to screen for or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19”.[92]


Few data are available about microscopic lesions and the pathophysiology of COVID-19.[93][94] The main pathological findings at autopsy are:


Inhibiting new infections to reduce the number of cases at any given time—known as flattening the curve—allows healthcare services to better manage the same volume of patients.[98][99][100]

Alternatives to flattening the curve[101][102]

Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include staying at home, avoiding crowded places, washing hands with soap and water often and for at least 20 seconds, practising good respiratory hygiene and avoiding touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands.[103][104][105] The CDC recommends covering the mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and recommends using the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available.[103] They also recommend proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze.[103] Social distancing strategies aim to reduce contact of infected persons with large groups by closing schools and workplaces, restricting travel and cancelling mass gatherings.[106] Social distancing also includes that people stay at least 6 feet (1.8 m) apart.[107]

As a vaccine is not expected until 2021 at the earliest,[108] a key part of managing COVID-19 is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the curve“.[99] This is done by slowing the infection rate to decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed, allowing for better treatment of current cases and delaying additional cases until effective treatments or a vaccine become available.[99]

According to the WHO, the use of masks is recommended only if a person is coughing or sneezing or when one is taking care of someone with a suspected infection.[109] Some countries also recommend healthy individuals to wear face masks, including China,[110] Hong Kong,[111] Thailand,[112] Czech Republic,[113] and Austria.[114] In order to meet the need for masks, the WHO estimates that global production will need to increase by 40%. Hoarding and speculation have worsened the problem, with the price of masks increasing sixfold, N95 respirators tripled, and gowns doubled.[115] Some health experts consider wearing non-medical grade masks and other face coverings like scarves or bandanas a good way to prevent people from touching their mouths and noses, even if non-medical coverings would not protect against a direct sneeze or cough from an infected person.[116]

Those diagnosed with COVID-19 or who believe they may be infected are advised by the CDC to stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask before entering the healthcare provider’s office and when in any room or vehicle with another person, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household items.[117][118] The CDC also recommends that individuals wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty, before eating and after blowing one’s nose, coughing or sneezing. It further recommends using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser with at least 60% alcohol, but only when soap and water are not readily available.[103]

For areas where commercial hand sanitisers are not readily available, the WHO provides two formulations for local production. In these formulations, the antimicrobial activity arises from ethanol or isopropanolHydrogen peroxide is used to help eliminate bacterial spores in the alcohol; it is “not an active substance for hand antisepsis“. Glycerol is added as a humectant.[119]


Four steps to putting on personal protective equipment[120]

People are managed with supportive care, which may include fluid therapy, oxygen support and supporting other affected vital organs.[121][122][123] The CDC recommends that those who suspect they carry the virus wear a simple face mask.[28] Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure, but its benefits are still under consideration.[124][125]

The WHO and Chinese National Health Commission have published recommendations for taking care of people who are hospitalised with COVID-19.[126][127] Intensivists and pulmonologists in the US have compiled treatment recommendations from various agencies into a free resource, the IBCC.[128][129]


Some medical professionals recommend paracetamol (acetaminophen) over ibuprofen for first-line use.[130][131] The WHO does not oppose the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen for symptoms,[132] and the FDA says currently there is no evidence that NSAIDs worsen COVID-19 symptoms.[133]

While theoretical concerns have been raised about ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, as of 19 March 2020, these are not sufficient to justify stopping these medications.[134][135][136] Steroids, such as methylprednisolone, are not recommended unless the disease is complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome.[137][138]

Personal protective equipment

Precautions must be taken to minimise the risk of virus transmission, especially in healthcare settings when performing procedures that can generate aerosols, such as intubation or hand ventilation.[139] For healthcare professionals caring for people with COVID-19, the CDC recommends placing the person in an Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) in addition to using standard precautions, contact precautions and airborne precautions.[140]

CDC outlines the specific guidelines for the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the pandemic. The recommended gear includes:

When available, respirators (instead of facemasks) are preferred.[147] N95 respirators are approved for industrial settings but the FDA has authorised the masks for use under an Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA). They are designed to protect from airborne particles like dust but effectiveness against a specific biological agent is not guaranteed for off-label uses.[148] When masks are not available, the CDC recommends using face shields or, as a last resort, homemade masks.[149]

Mechanical ventilation

Most cases of COVID-19 are not severe enough to require mechanical ventilation (artificial assistance to support breathing), but a percentage of cases do.[150][151] Some Canadian doctors recommend the use of invasive mechanical ventilation because this technique limits the spread of aerosolised transmission vectors.[150] Severe cases are most common in older adults (those older than 60 years[150] and especially those older than 80 years).[152] Many developed countries do not have enough hospital beds per capita, which limits a health system‘s capacity to handle a sudden spike in the number of COVID-19 cases severe enough to require hospitalisation.[153] This limited capacity is a significant driver of the need to flatten the curve (to keep the speed at which new cases occur and thus the number of people sick at one point in time lower).[153] One study in China found 5% were admitted to intensive care units, 2.3% needed mechanical support of ventilation, and 1.4% died.[124] Around 20–30% of the people in hospital with pneumonia from COVID-19 needed ICU care for respiratory support.[154]

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Mechanical ventilation becomes more complex as ARDS develops in COVID-19 and oxygenation becomes increasingly difficult.[155] Ventilators capable of pressure control modes and high PEEP[156] are needed to maximise oxygen delivery while minimising the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury and pneumothorax.[157] High PEEP may not be available on older ventilators.

Star Mosque

Star Masque

                   তারা মসজিদ

Star Mosque

(Bengaliতারা মসজিদ; also known as Tara Masjid), is a mosque located in Armanitola area, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The mosque has ornate designs and is decorated with motifs of blue stars. It was built in the first half of the 19th century by Mirza Golam Pir (MirzaAhmed Jan).




Historical backgrond

Star Mosque was first built by Mirza Ghulam Pir, as a three-domed oblong edifice. But an over-enthusiastic and zealous merchant named Ali Jan Bepari completely remodeled and reconstructed it with extremely delicate and richly colored tiles of variegated patterns. Ali Jan has added the new verandah, that is mentioned in the introduction, on the east and spent lavishly on importing Japanese and English decorated China clay tiles to improve the inner and outer show of the mosque. It is now a five-domed structure. In 1987, two domes have been raised on an extension to the northern side without any respect to its antiquity, architectural style, and decoration.



Built in the Mughal style by Mirza Ghulam in the late 18th century, this mosque was originally a simple rectangular mosque, measuring 33′ x 11′ with three doorways on the east façade (main façade) and one on the north wall and another on the south wall. Three domes crowned the mosque, the central one being the larger. Towers accented the corners and the façades displayed plastered panel decoration. In early 20th century, Ali Jan Bepari financed its renovation when a front verandah was added. The surface was redone in ‘Chini Tikri’, a popular broken china decoration. The mosque is one of the very few examples of exclusive chinitikri mosaic, found in the striking blue star mosaic, which gave the mosque its name Star Mosque. In 1987, the prayer hall was extended by the Department of Architecture to include two more domes. It was decorated with imported china clay tiles and used both methods of applying chinitikri and used solid colour, cur clay tiles and formed patterns by placing the coloured tiles in white plaster. The domes and the exterior are covered with different coloured star shaped china clay tiles. The upper portion of the eastern façade also incorporates a crescent motif. The work assumed another texture by using assorted glazed tiles on the interior. The three mihrabs and the doorways are decorated with mosaic floral pattern. A plant and vase motif is repeated as a decorative element on the pendentive and the interior of the verandah wall.


Exterior decoration

In early 20th century, Ali Jan Bepari, a local businessman, financed the renovation of the mosque and added a new eastern verandah. The surface was redecorated with Chinitikri work (mosaic work of broken China porcelain pieces), a decorative style that was popular during the 1930s.The mosque, which previously lacked any historical significance, is one of the few remaining architectural example of the Chinitikri (Chinese pieces) method of mosaic decoration. This decorative technique is found in the striking star motif that is in part the reason for the mosque’s current acclaim and popular name, Star Mosque or Sitara Masjid. In 1987, the Ministry of Religious Affairs commissioned Giasul Huque and Zahiruddin to make additions to the prayer hall, which was extended to include two more domes.

The mosque is decorated with Japanese and English china clay tiles and used both methods of the Chinitikri application. One approach uses solid colour, cut clay tiles and form patterns through the placement of these coloured tiles in white plaster. The domes and the exterior surface are covered with different coloured star shaped China clay tiles. The upper portion of the eastern façade also incorporates a crescent motif.


Edited & Composed bySanny Habib Aman


in Singapore 2018.


Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach

Cox’s Bazar is a District under Chittagong Division, which is famous for its longest unbroken sandy sea beach. It is located 150 km south of the industrial port- Chittagong. Cox’s Bazar is considered as having the longest sea beach in the world, with a total of 121 kilometer long. The name Cox’s Bazar was derived from its founder, Captain Cox. He founded the very attractive beach in 1798. Then the Cox’s Bazar beach started only as a small port and health resort.


Though the beach is considered to be the longest

beach in the world, it has been the least crowded among the other beaches. Here, visitors can enjoy the relaxing breeze of the Bay of Bengal Sea and the peacefulness of the place. The Cox’s bazar beach certainly has the finest leisure it can offer to each of its visitors. People can take a timely stroll along the lengthened stretch of the beach and enjoy the view of the amazing seascape. Visitors can also enjoy water sport activities like scuba diving, surfing, and try some boat rides.

There are also other wonderful places to see around the Cox’s beach bazar. One of these is the beautiful Himchari waterfall, located 18 kilometer south of Cox’s Bazar sea beach. This is the most visited place in the district, with its beautiful refreshing green hills and the wonderful water fall, where visitors can bathe and swim apart from the sea itself.
Another attraction is the Moheshkhali Island near the Cox’s beach bazar coast. The island can be reached via speedboat. Here, visitors can view the breath-taking view of the island. With the bright green color of its mangrove forest that will surely amaze everyone who come to see the place. This is definitely the next best thing to explore after one’s beach trip.

Cox’s Beach Bazar really is the place best recommended for people who seeks for serene, soberness and relaxing vacation. Every Cox’s Beach Bazar trip will surely please and satisfy everyone who visits here.

Laboni Beach:
Laboni beach is the longest and main beach of Cox’s Bazar. It is the closest sea beach to the town. At here a traveler can easily enjoy the scenic beauty of Bay of Bengal Sea. Its a place for enjoyment, many people come here around the year including the foreigners. You can enjoy sunbathe, surfing, jogging, cycling and swimming in this beach. It is best place for swimming and relaxation. Not only in day time, you can enjoy beauty of sea at night from this beach as it is totally safe place for tourist. The beach is well appreciated during sunsets and sunrise, where people can witness the sea as it changes its colors twice in a day. It is best for swimming and relaxation. Close to the beach, there are a lot of small shops selling souvenirs, locally made cigars & beauty products (sandal wood based), handmade clothes, bed sheets, dresses, shoes and beach accessories to the tourists. It is a nice place for our tourism. So, come & let’s enjoy the beauty of Laboni Beach.


sanny habib aman

People from all spheres of life will pay their tribute to the martyrs with various programs chalked out by the political parties, administration, educational institutions and so on

The country will celebrate the 48th victory day today remembering the three million people who sacrificed their lives to carve out an independent country in 1971.

People from all spheres of life will pay their tribute to the martyrs with various programs chalked out by the political parties, administration, educational institutions and so on.

President Md Abdul Hamid and Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, in separate messages, paid homage to the martyrs who sacrificed their lives to achieve the freedom.

The president in his message said that the 11th parliamentary election is being held in December, the month of our victory. In a democratic system, people exercise their universal franchise and choose their desired candidate via election.

sanny habib aman

He hoped that the people will elect honest, capable and patriotic candidates in the upcoming election and continue the development and advancement of the country.

“Let the glory of democracy be strengthened through the festive mood of election – it is my expectation,” he said in his message.

Sheikh Hasina in her message said: “Due to the continuation of Awami League government for 10 years, people at the grassroots are now enjoying the dividends of development. Bangladesh is moving forward and it will continue to do so. The next generation will reap the benefits of a prosperous Bangladesh,” she said.

The celebration will commence with a 31-gun salute at dawn and the president and prime minister will pay tribute at the National Memorial at Savar. The families of Birshresthas and freedom fighters will pay homage. Foreign envoys, various socio political organizations, and the public will also pay their respect.

Marking the day, the national flag will be hoisted at all government, semi-government, autonomous and non-government establishments and their premises will be decorated with lights. National flag will also be hoisted on several roads. Armed forces will play orchestra in several areas in the capital.

This year there will be no parades at the National Parade Square but parades will be held at all district and upazila headquarters.

“Bijoy-Mancha” (stage of victory) will be set up at upazila and district levels from the victory day to organize discussions on the Liberation War, photo and film exhibitions, documentary screening, and cultural programs.

The Dhaka University student and teachers body, political parties, and War Veterans have chalked out various programs marking the occasion.

On this day, the country won the nine-month long war as the occupational Pakistani forces surrendered and laid down their weapons at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka. The Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gave his historical March 7, 1971 speech there which led the country into the war of liberation.

Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi


Rayer Bazaar is a well-known thoroughfare in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. It is generally regarded as one of the historical areas of the city. Rayer Bazaar was founded during the colonial period most probably in the 19th century. It was the potters who first started to live here beside the Turag River. This Place was most probably named after someone titled Ray. It was easy to find the clay used to make pots in this area and spread it around by boats as it was situated near the river.

During the Mughal period, this place was famous for pottery and most of the potters of this region used to live in Rayer Bazar, because the famous “lal mati” was available in this place. During the Mughal and British Colonial period, the red clay was not available in the neighborhoods. As a result, the Potters of Rayer Bazar have a long tradition of working with this red clay. According to Dr. Wise, this place was known as “Kumartoli” during the Mughal period.

Rayer Bazar will remain in our memories, in our history for another reason. In the night of 14 December 1971, many of Bangladesh’s intellectuals including professors, journalists, doctors, artists, engineers, and writers were rounded up in Dhaka. They were taken blindfolded to torture cells in Mirpur, Mohammadpur, Nakhalpara, Rajarbagh and other locations in different sections of the city. Later on, they were executed and thrown out in the swamps, at Rayerbazar.

In memory of the martyred intellectuals of 1971, a Memorial is created in there. The ‘Al-Badr’ and ‘Al-Shams’ Group helped the West Pakistan Army to locate the intellectuals and slaughtered them and many other innocent peoples at night. After the massacre they brought the corpses and left them into the swamps of Rayer Bazaar. After the Liberation War, the people of Dhaka found out that all the dead bodies of many great intellectuals and innocent people are piled up in here.” Martyred Intellectuals Memorial is the memorial built for the memory of the martyred intellectuals of 1971. The memorial is built in the Boddhobhumi at Rayer Bazaar.

How to go

Rayer Bazaar Bodhdhobhumi is located in Sadarghat-Gabtoli road near Beribadh area in Dhaka District. This area is mainly an extension of the Turag River. The Martyred Intellectuals Memorial was established here in 14 December 1993 by ex Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia.
How To Reach: Dhaka City

Most popular transport system in Dhaka city is Rickshaw. You can find available buses (Local or direct service) in coming inside or move outside Dhaka city. There are other transport systems like Trains, Rivers and Air.

Where to Stay

There are more than 71 quality hotel in Dhaka. Some are listed below…

1. Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Dhaka
107 , Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Tel: +880 2 811 1005
Website : Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Dhaka

2. Ruposhi Bangla Hotel
1 Minto Road, Shahbagh, Dhaka,
Phone : 88-02-8330001
Fax : 88-02-8312975
Email :
Website : Ruposhi Bangla Hotel

3. Radisson Water Garden Hotel, Dhaka
Airport Road, Dhaka Cantonment,
Dhaka 1206 Bangladesh.
Telephone: + 88 02 8754555
Fax: + 88 02 8754554 , + 88 02 8754504
Email : reservations.dhaka[at]
Website : Radisson Water Garden Hotel
Dhaka Bangladesh

4. Dhaka Regency Hotel & Resort
Airport Road, Nikunja 2
Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh.
Phone : +88-02-8913912, +880 2 8900250-9
Fax : +88-02-8911479
Email :
Website :

5. Best Western La Vinci Hotel, Dhaka
54, Kawran Bazar,
Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh
Phone No : 880-2-9119352
Fax No : 880-2-9131218
E-mail : lavinci[at] ,
Web :

6. The Westin Hotel
Main Gulshan Avenue,
Plot-01, Road 45, Gulshan-2
Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Phone : 88-02-9891988

7. Royal Park Residence Hotel
House no. 85, Road no. 25A
Block – A, Banani,
Dhaka 1213 Bangladesh.
Telephone: + 88 02 8815945/46
Fax: + 88 02 8815299
Email : hotelinfo[at]
Website : Royal Park Residence Hotel

8. Bengal Inn
House # 07, Road # 16,
Gulshan – 01
Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh.
Tel: +880 2 98880236, 9880610
Fax: +880 2 9880274

9. Hotel Sarina Dhaka
Plot #27, Road #17
Banani C/A,
Dhaka 1213 Bangladesh.
Tel: +880 2 8859604 -10, 8851040 -2, 8851011-4
Fax: +880 2 988-9989

National Martyrs Memorial


Jatiyo Sriti Shoudho (জাতীয় স্মৃতি সৌধ) or National Martyrs Memorial is the national monument of Bangladesh is the symbol in the memory of the velour and the sacrifice of all those who gave their lives in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought independence and separated Bangladesh from Pakistan.

National Martyrs Memorial is situated in Nabinagar, Savar approximately 35 km from Dhaka. The memorial designed by architect Moinul Hossain is dedicated to the sacred memory of the millions of unknown martyrs of the war of liberation. This Martyrs Memorial is a symbol of Bengali nationalism. It is really a scenic beauty of 108 acre of land. The top of this monument is 150 ft. high, which consists other 07 triangular monuments.

How to go

You can go to Savar from Dhaka city by local Bus service or Taxi / CNG.

How To Reach: Savar Upazila

There are two prime ways to get into the Savar Upazila, One is via Bypass-Nabinagar from Uttara zone (Northern side of Dhaka). Another one is Via Gabtoli-Aminbazar, which is commonly known as Dhaka-Aricha highway. A significant number of Buses moving toward Savar from various bus-stop in Dhaka. Just catch one to be there.

The Bus services moving toward Savar from Dhaka are-

1. Titas Bus (Mirpur-12 to Chondra via Savar)
2. D-link, Gulistan- Dhamrai ( Via Savar)
3. Grameen Sheba ( Gulistan-Dhamrai)
4. Boishakhi Paribahan (Gulshan,Badda- Savar)
5. BRTC Bus (Farmgate to Savar)
6. Super Bus
7. Hanif Paribahan (Farmgate to Savar)
8. Ananda Super ( Abdullah pur Switch Gate to Savar)

Where to Stay

1. United Residential Hotel
Dhaka – Aricha Highway, Savar 1340

2. Ananda Hotel
Savar Thana Road, Savar

3. Hotel New Savar
Jaleshwar, Dhaka – Aricha Highway,
Savar 1340

Things to do

It’s a lovely place, and you can enjoy your whole day at the place. You should also learn our National History behind this memorial.

Travel Tips

It’s free for everyone, no entry fee requires. This is open from morning to sun set. Staying at night time is not allowed by the authority.

Lalbagh Fort

Lalbagh Fort or Fort Aurangabad, an incomplete Mughal palace fortress at Dhaka on the river Buriganga in the southwestern part of the old city. The river has now gone further south and flows at quite a distance from the fort. D’Oily’s painting (1809-11) shows that more than half of this east-west oblong fortress touched the water of the river on its south and southwestern sides.

The construction of the fort was commenced in 1678 AD by prince muhammad azam during his 15 month long vice-royalty of Bengal, but before he could complete the work he was recalled by aurangzeb. His successor, shaista khan did not continue the work, though he stayed in Dhaka up to 1688. His daughter bibi pari (Lady Fairy) died here in 1684 and this led him to consider the fort to be ominous.

Site plan of Lalbagh Fort

For long the fort was considered to be a combination of three buildings (the mosque, the tomb of Bibi Pari and the Diwan-i-Aam), two gateways and a portion of the partly damaged fortification wall. But recent excavations carried out by the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh have revealed the existence of other structures and it is now possible to guess a more or less complete picture of the fort (see site plan of Lalbagh Fort).

In the present fort area of 18 acres, excavations have revealed remains of 26/27 structures with elaborate arrangements for water supply, sewerage, roof gardens, and fountains. Renovation work by the Archaeology Department has now put Lalbagh Fort in a much-improved shape and has now become an interesting spot for tourists and visitors.

Of the three surviving gateways, the southern one is the most imposing. Seen from the front it is a three storeyed structure with a fronton, bordered with slender minarets. From inside it gives the impression of a two storeyed structure. The gateway on the northeast is a much smaller and simpler structure. It is gathered from structural evidence that the fort extended to the eastern side beyond the present Shaista Khan Road. The third gate, now in the centre of the northern boundary wall, was left incomplete. The present one is a recent construction.

The southern fortification wall, running westward from the South Gateway went up to the huge bastion in the southwestern corner of the fort. Then the fortification ran northward for a distance and then it is lost. The boundary wall on the eastern side connecting the southern and northern gateways is a modern wall and it is now assumed that the fort originally embraced areas further east beyond the present Shaista Khan Road.

On the northern side of the southern fortification were placed utility buildings, such as the stable, the administrative block, and its western part accommodated a beautiful roof-garden with arrangements for fountains and a water reservoir. The residential part was located on the eastern side of the western fortification, mainly to the south-west of the mosque, where the remains of a sewerage line have been found. The southern fortification is a twin wall, the outer one is about 6.10m high and 1.37m thick, while the inner one is 13.72m high with same thickness. The two are solid up to the height of 6.10m and there are regular openings in the upper part of the inner wall.

Partial view of the Fort showing Diwani-i-Aam, Tomb and the Mosque

The original fortification wall on the south had 5 bastions at regular intervals and the western wall had 2 bastions. Among the 7 bastions the biggest one is near the main southern gate at the back of the stable, which occupies the area to the west of the gateway. The bastion had an underground tunnel. Among the five bastions of the southern fortification the central one was single storeyed, the rest are double storeyed structures. The central one contains an underground room with veranda on three sides, and it can be approached either from the riverside or from its roof. The double-storeyed bastion at the southwestern corner of the fort was possibly a Hawakhana, with a water reservoir on its roof. Two lines of terracotta pipes have been found, which connected all establishments of the fort with this reservoir. An extra-strong terracotta pipe line made with double pipes, one inside the other, have been uncovered in the area between the Hammam and the tomb of Bibi Pari.

The area westwards from the stable parallel to the southern fortification once had a beautiful roof garden with fountain, rose and star designs marking the flowerbeds, and a water reservoir. The buildings underneath contained the administrative blocks and the residential part on the western side.

The central area of the fort is occupied by three buildings – the Diwan-i-Aam and the Hammam on its east, the mosque on the west and the tomb of Bibi Pari in between the two – in one line, but not at equal distance. A water channel with fountains at regular interval connect the three buildings from east to west and two similar channels run from south to north, one through the middle of the ground in between the Diwan-i-Aam and the tomb forming a square tank with fountains at the intersection with the east-west channel, and the other from the water reservoir passing through the bottom of the tomb.

The water channels and the fountains, a very common feature of Mughal architecture, set an atmosphere not very unlike north Indian Mughal forts. A big square water tank (71.63m each side), placed in front (to the east) of the Diwan-i-Aam and in between the southern and northern gateways, adds to the beauty of the building. There are four corner stairs to descent into the tank.

South gateway of Lalbagh Fort (Inside view)

The double storeyed Diwan-i-Aam attached with a single storeyed Hammam on its west is an imposing building. The Hmmam complex includes an open platform, a small kitchen, an oven, water storage area, a masonry brick bath-tub, a toilet, a dressing room and an extra room. The Hammam portion has an underground room for boiling water and a passage for sweepers. A long partition wall runs north-south along the western facade of the Hammam dividing the whole fort area into two divisions.

The building in the middle, the tomb of Bibi Pari, is the most impressive of the surviving buildings of the fort. Eight rooms surround a central square room, containing the mortal remains of Bibi Pari, which is covered by a false dome, octagonal in shape, and wrapped by brass plate. The entire inner wall of the central room was covered with white marble, while the four side central rooms had stone skirting up to a height of one metre. The wall in the four corner rooms was skirted with beautiful glazed floral tiles. The tiles have recently been restored; two of the original tiles have been retained. The southeastern corner room contains a small grave, popularly known to be of Shamsad Begum, possibly a relative of Bibi Pari. The Lalbagh Fort Mosque is a three-domed mosque with a water tank in front (on the eastern side) for ablution.

The archaeological excavations have revealed strata of the Sultanate as well as of the pre-Muslim periods, from where terracotta heads and plaques have been found. Thus it is now justified to say that though the Mughals founded Dhaka, it was definitely inhabited long before the Muslims came to Bengal.

Culture of Bangladesh

Identification. “Bangladesh” is a combination of the Bengali words, Bangla and Desh, meaning the country or land where the Bangla language is spoken. The country formerly was known as East Pakistan.

Location and Geography. Bangladesh straddles the Bay of Bengal in south Asia. To the west and north it is bounded by India; to the southeast, it borders Myanmar. The topography is predominantly a low-lying floodplain. About half the total area is actively deltaic and is prone to flooding in the monsoon season from May through September. The Ganges/Padma River flows into the country from the northwest, while the Brahmaputra/ Jamuna enters from the north. The capital city, Dhaka, is near the point where those river systems meet. The land is suitable for rice cultivation.

In the north and the southeast the land is more hilly and dry, and tea is grown. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have extensive hardwood forests. The vast river delta area is home to the dominant plains culture. The hilly areas of the northeast and southeast are occupied by much smaller tribal groups, many of which have strongly resisted domination by the national government and the population pressure from Bangladeshis who move into and attempt to settle in their traditional areas. In 1998 an accord was reached between the armed tribal group Shanti Bahini and the government.

Demography. Bangladesh is the most densely populated nonisland nation in the world. With approximately 125 million inhabitants living in an area of 55,813 square miles, there are about 2,240 persons per square mile. The majority of the population (98 percent) is Bengali, with 2 percent belonging to tribal or other non-Bengali groups. Approximately 83 percent of the population is Muslim, 16 percent is Hindu, and 1 percent is Buddhist, Christian, or other. Annual population growth rate is at about 2 percent.

Infant mortality is approximately seventy-five per one thousand live births. Life expectancy for both men and women is fifty-eight years, yet the sex ratios for cohorts above sixty years of age are skewed toward males. Girls between one and four years of age are almost twice as likely as boys to die.

In the early 1980s the annual rate of population increase was above 2.5 percent, but in the late 1990s it decreased to 1.9 percent. The success of population control may be due to the demographic transition (decreasing birth and death rates), decreasing farm sizes, increasing urbanization, and national campaigns to control fertility (funded largely by other nations).

Linguistic Affiliation. The primary language is Bangla, called Bengali by most nonnatives, an Indo-European language spoken not just by Bangladeshis, but also by people who are culturally Bengali. This includes about 300 million people from Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Bihar, as well as Bengali speakers in other Indian states. The language dates from well before the birth of Christ. Bangla varies by region, and people may not understand the language of a person from another district. However, differences in dialect consist primarily of slight differences in accent or pronunciation and minor grammatical usages.

Language differences mirror social and religious divisions. Bangla is divided into two fairly distinct forms: sadhu basha, learned or formal language, and cholit basha, common language. Sadhu basha is the language of the literate tradition, formal essays

and poetry, and the well educated. Cholit basha is the spoken vernacular, the language of the great majority of Bengalis. Cholit basha is the medium by which the great majority of people communicate in a country in which 50 percent of men and 26 percent of women are literate. There are also small usage variations between Muslims and Hindus, along with minor vocabulary differences. Symbolism. The most important symbol of national identity is the Bangla language. The flag is a dark green rectangle with a red circle just left of center. Green symbolizes the trees and fields of the countryside; red represents the rising sun and the blood spilled in the 1971 war for liberation. The national anthem was taken from a poem by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore and links a love of the natural realm and land with the national identity.

Since independence in 1971, the national identity has evolved. Islamic religious identity has become an increasingly important element in the national dialogue. Many Islamic holy days are nationally celebrated, and Islam pervades public space and the media.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. The creation of the independent nation represents  the triumph of ethnic and cultural politics. The region that is now Bangladesh has been part of a number of important political entities, including Indian empires, Buddhist kingdoms, the Moghul empire, the British empire and the Pakistani nation.

Until 1947 Bangladesh was known as East Bengal province and had been part of Great Britain’s India holding since the 1700s. In 1947, Britain, in conjunction with India’s leading indigenous political organizations, partitioned the Indian colony into India and Pakistan. The province of East Bengal was made part of Pakistan and was referred to as East Pakistan. West Pakistan was carved from the northwest provinces of the British Indian empire. This division of territory represented an attempt to create a Muslim nation on Hindu India’s peripheries. However, the west and east wings of Pakistan were separated by more than 1,000 miles of India, creating cultural discontinuity between the two wings. The ethnic groups of Pakistan and the Indian Muslims who left India after partition were greatly different in language and way of life from the former East Bengalis: West Pakistan was more oriented toward the Middle East and Arab Islamic influence than was East Pakistan, which contained Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and British cultural influences.

From the beginning of Pakistan’s creation, the Bengali population in the east was more numerous than the Pakistani population in the western wing, yet West Pakistan became the seat of government and controlled nearly all national resources. West Pakistanis generally viewed Bengalis as inferior, weak, and less Islamic. From 1947 to 1970, West Pakistan reluctantly gave in to Bengali calls for power within the government, armed forces, and civil service, but increasing social unrest in the east led to a perception among government officials that the people of Bengal were unruly and untrust worthy “Hinduized” citizens. Successive Pakistani regimes, increasingly concerned with consolidating their power over the entire country, often criticized the Hindu minority in Bengal. This was evident in Prime Minister Nazimuddin’s attempt in 1952 to make Urdu, the predominant language of West Pakistan, the state language. The effect in the east was to energize opposition movements, radicalize students at Dhaka University, and give new meaning to a Bengali identity that stressed the cultural unity of the east instead of a pan-Islamic brotherhood.

Through the 1960s, the Bengali public welcomed a message that stressed the uniqueness of Bengali culture, and this formed the basis for calls for self-determination or autonomy. In the late 1960s, the Pakistani government attempted to fore-stall scheduled elections. The elections were held on 7 December 1970, and Pakistanis voted directly for members of the National Assembly.

The Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, was largely a Bengali party which called for autonomy for the east. Sheikh Mujib wanted to reconfigure Pakistan as a confederation of two equal partners. His party won one of 162 seats in the East Pakistan provincial assembly and 160 of the three hundred seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League would control national politics and have the ability to name the prime minister. President Yahya, however, postponed the convening of the National Assembly to prevent a Bengali power grab. In response, Sheikh Mujib and the Awami League led civil disobedience in East Pakistan. West Pakistan began to move more troops into the east, and on 25 March 1971, the Pakistani army carried out a systematic execution of several hundred people, arrested Mujib, and transported him to the west. On 26 March the Awami League declared East Pakistan an independent nation, and by April the Bengalis were in open conflict with the Pakistani military.

In a 10-month war of liberation, Bangladeshi units called Mukhti Bahini (freedom fighters), largely trained and armed by Indian forces, battled Pakistani troops throughout the country in guerrilla skirmishes. The Pakistanis systematically sought out political opponents and executed Hindu men on sight. Close to 10 million people fled Bangladesh for West Bengal, in India. In early December 1971, the Indian army entered Bangladesh, engaged Pakistani military forces with the help of the Mukhti Bahini, and in a ten-day period subdued the Pakistani forces. On 16 December the Pakistani military surrendered. In January 1972, Mujib was released from confinement and became the prime minister of Bangladesh.

Bangladesh was founded as a “democratic, secular, socialist state,” but the new state represented the triumph of a Bangladeshi Muslim culture and language. The administration degenerated into corruption, and Mujib attempted to create a one-party state. On 15 August 1975 he was assassinated, along with much of his family, by army officers. Since that time, Bangladesh has been both less socialistic and less secular.

General Ziaur Rahman became martial law administrator in December 1976 and president in 1977. On 30 May 1981, Zia was assassinated by army officers. His rule had been violent and repressive, but he had improved national economy. After a short-lived civilian government, a bloodless coup placed Army chief of staff General Mohammed Ershad in office as martial law administrator; he later became president. Civilian opposition increased, and the Awami League, the Bangladesh National Party (BNP), and the religious fundamentalist party Jamaat-i-Islami united in a seven-year series of crippling strikes. In December 1990, Ershad was forced to resign.

A caretaker government held national elections early in 1991. The BNP, headed by Khaleda Zia, widow of former President Zia, formed a government in an alliance with the Jamaat-i-Islami. Political factionalism intensified over the next five years, and on 23 June 1996, the Awami League took control of Parliament. At its head was Sheikh Hasina Wazed, the daughter of Sheikh Mujib.

National Identity. Bangladeshi national identity is rooted in a Bengali culture that transcends international borders and includes the area of Bangladesh itself and West Bengal, India. Symbolically, Bangladeshi identity is centered on the 1971 struggle for independence from Pakistan. During that struggle, the key elements of Bangladeshi identity coalesced around the importance of the Bengali mother tongue and the distinctiveness of a culture or way of life connected to the floodplains of the region. Since that time, national identity has become increasingly linked to Islamic symbols as opposed to the Hindu Bengali, a fact that serves to reinforce the difference between Hindu West Bengal and Islamic Bangladesh. Being Bangladeshi in some sense means feeling connected to the natural land–water systems of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and other rivers that drain into the Bay of Bengal. There is an envisioning of nature and the annual cycle as intensely beautiful, as deep green paddy turns

A man eating a meal on his houseboat in Sunderbans National Park. Fish and rice are a common part of the diet.

golden, dark clouds heavy with monsoon rains gradually clear, and flooded fields dry. Even urban families retain a sense of connectedness to this rural system. The great poets of the region, Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nurul Islam have enshrined the Bengali sense of the beauty and power of the region’s nature. Ethnic Relations. The most significant social divide is between Muslims and Hindus. In 1947 millions of Hindus moved west into West Bengal, while millions of Muslims moved east into the newly created East Pakistan. Violence occurred as the columns of people moved past each other. Today, in most sections of the country, Hindus and Muslims live peacefully in adjacent areas and are connected by their economic roles and structures. Both groups view themselves as members of the same culture.

From 1976 to 1998 there was sustained cultural conflict over the control of the southeastern Chittagong Hill Tracts. That area is home to a number of tribal groups that resisted the movement of Bangladeshi Muslims into their territory. In 1998, a peace accord granted those groups a degree of autonomy and self-governance. These tribal groups still do not identify themselves with the national culture.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Bangladesh is still primarily a rural culture, and the gram or village is an important spatial and cultural concept even for residents of the major cities. Most people identify with a natal or ancestral village in the countryside.

Houses in villages are commonly rectangular, and are dried mud, bamboo, or red brick structures with thatch roofs. Many are built on top of earthen or wooden platforms to keep them above the flood line. Houses have little interior decoration, and wall space is reserved for storage. Furniture is minimal, often consisting only of low stools. People sleep on thin bamboo mats. Houses have verandas in the front, and much of daily life takes place under their eaves rather than indoors. A separate smaller mud or bamboo structure serves as a kitchen ( rana ghor ), but during the dry season many women construct hearths and cook in the household courtyard. Rural houses are simple and functional, but are not generally considered aesthetic showcases.

The village household is a patrilineal extended compound linked to a pond used for daily household needs, a nearby river that provides fish, trees that provide fruit (mango and jackfruit especially), and rice fields. The village and the household not only embody important natural motifs but serve as the locus of ancestral family identity. Urban dwellers try to make at least one trip per year to “their village.”

Architectural styles in the cities show numerous historical influences, including Moghul and Islamic motifs with curved arches, windows, and minarets, and square British colonial wood and concrete construction. The National Parliament building (Shongshad Bhabon) in Dhaka, designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, reflects a synthesis of western modernity and curved Islamic-influenced spaces. The National Monument in Savar, a wide-based spire that becomes narrower as it rises, is the symbol of the country’s liberation.

Because of the population density, space is at a premium. People of the same sex interact closely, and touching is common. On public transportation strangers often are pressed together for long periods. In public spaces, women are constrained in their movements and they rarely enter the public sphere unaccompanied. Men are much more free in their movement. The rules regarding the gender differential in the use of public space are less closely adhered to in urban areas than in rural areas.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Rice and fish are the foundation of the diet; a day without a meal with rice is nearly inconceivable. Fish, meats, poultry, and vegetables are cooked in spicy curry ( torkari ) sauces that incorporate cumin, coriander, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, and other spices. Muslims do not consume pork and Hindus do not consume beef. Increasingly common is the preparation of ruti, a whole wheat circular flatbread, in the morning, which is eaten with curries from the night before. Also important to the diet is dal, a thin soup based on ground lentils, chickpeas, or other legumes that is poured over rice. A sweet homemade yogurt commonly finishes a meal. A typical meal consists of a large bowl of rice to which is added small portions of fish and vegetable curries. Breakfast is the meal that varies the most, being rice- or bread-based. A favorite breakfast dish is panthabhat, leftover cold rice in water or milk mixed with gur (date palm sugar). Food is eaten with the right hand by mixing the curry into the rice and then gathering portions with the fingertips. In city restaurants that cater to foreigners, people may use silverware.

Three meals are consumed daily. Water is the most common beverage. Before the meal, the right hand is washed with water above the eating bowl. With the clean knuckles of the right hand the interior of the bowl is rubbed, the water is discarded, and the bowl is filled with food. After the meal, one washes the right hand again, holding it over the emptied bowl.

Snacks include fruits such as banana, mango, and jackfruit, as well as puffed rice and small fried food items. For many men, especially in urbanized regions and bazaars, no day is complete without a cup of sweet tea with milk at a small tea stall, sometimes accompanied by confections.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. At weddings and on important holidays, food plays an important role. At holiday or formal functions, guests are encouraged to eat to their capacity. At weddings, a common food is biryani, a rice dish with lamb or beef and a blend of spices, particularly saffron. On special occasions, the rice used is one of the finer, thinner-grained types. If biryani is not eaten, a complete multicourse meal is served: foods are brought out sequentially and added to one’s rice bowl after the previous course is finished. A complete dinner may include chicken, fish, vegetable, goat, or beef curries and dal. The final bit of rice is finished with yogurt ( doi ).

On other important occasions, such as the Eid holidays, a goat or cow is slaughtered on the premises and curries are prepared from the fresh meat. Some of the meat is given to relatives and to the poor.

Basic Economy. With a per capita gross national product (GNP) of $350 and an overall GNP of $44 billion, Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. The only significant natural resource is natural gas.

Approximately 75 percent of the workforce is involved in agriculture, and 15 percent and 10 percent are employed in the service and industrial sectors, respectively. Bangladesh has been characterized as a nation of small, subsistence-based farmers, and nearly all people in rural areas are involved in the production or processing of agricultural goods. The majority of the rural population engages in agricultural production, primarily of rice, jute, pulses, wheat, and some vegetables. Virtually all agricultural output is consumed within the country, and grain must be imported. The large population places heavy demands on the food-producing sectors of the economy. The majority of the labor involved in food production is human- and animal-based. Relatively little agricultural export takes place.

A Bangladeshi man hanging fish to dry in the sun in Sunderbans. Bangladesh topography is predominantly a low-lying floodplain.

In the countryside, typically about ten villages are linked in a market system that centers on a bazaar occurring at least once per week. On bazaar days, villagers bring in agricultural produce or crafts such as water pots to sell to town and city agents. Farmers then visit kiosks to purchase spices, kerosene, soap, vegetables or fish, and salt.

Land Tenure and Property. With a population density of more than two thousand per square mile, land tenure and property rights are critical aspects of survival. The average farm owner has less than three acres of land divided into a number of small plots scattered in different directions from the household. Property is sold only in cases of family emergency, since agricultural land is the primary means of survival. Ordinarily, among Muslims land is inherited equally by a household head’s sons, despite Islamic laws that specify shares for daughters and wives. Among Hindu farmers inheritance practices are similar. When agricultural land is partitioned, each plot is divided among a man’s sons, ensuring that each one has a geographically dispersed holding. The only sections of rural areas that are not privately owned are rivers and paths.

Commercial Activities. In rural areas Hindus perform much of the traditional craft production of items for everyday life; caste groups include weavers, potters, iron and gold smiths, and carpenters. Some of these groups have been greatly reduced in number, particularly weavers, who have been replaced by ready-made clothing produced primarily in Dhaka.

Agriculture accounts for 25 percent of GDP. The major crops are rice, jute, wheat, tea, sugarcane, and vegetables.

Major Industries. In recent years industrial growth has occurred primarily in the garment and textile industries. Jute processing and jute product fabrication remain major industries. Overall, industry accounted for about 28 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1998.

Trade. Exports totaled $4.4 billion in 1996, with the United States consuming one-third of those exports. Primary export markets are for jute (used in carpet backing, burlap, and rope), fish, garments, and textiles. Imports totaled $7.1 billion and largely consisted of capital goods, grains, petroleum, and chemicals. The country relies on an annual inflow of at least $1 billion from international sources, not including the humanitarian aid that is part of the national economic system. Agriculture accounted for about 25 percent of the GDP in 1998.

Transporting straw on the Ganges River Delta. The majority of Bangladeshi, about 75 percent, are agricultural workers.

Division of Labor. The division of labor is based on age and education. Young children are economically productive in rural areas, hauling water, watching animals, and helping with postharvest processing. The primary agricultural tasks, however, are performed by men. Education allows an individual to seek employment outside the agricultural sector, although the opportunities for educated young men in rural areas are extremely limited. A service or industry job often goes to the individual who can offer the highest bribe to company officials.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. The Muslim class system is similar to a caste structure. The ashraf is a small upperclass of old-money descendants of early Muslim officials and merchants whose roots are in Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iran. Some ashraf families trace their lineage to the Prophet Mohammed. The rest of the population is conceived of as the indigenous majority atraf. This distinction mirrors the Hindu separation between the Brahman and those in lower castes. While both Muslim and Hindu categories are recognized by educated people, the vast majority of citizens envision class in a more localized, rural context.

In rural areas, class is linked to the amount of land owned, occupation, and education. A landowner with more than five acres is at the top of the socioeconomic scale, and small subsistence farmers are in the middle. At the bottom of the scale are the landless rural households that account for about 30 percent of the rural population. Landowning status reflects socioeconomic class position in rural areas, although occupation and education also play a role. The most highly educated people hold positions requiring literacy and mathematical skills, such as in banks and government offices, and are generally accorded a higher status than are farmers. Small businessmen may earn as much as those who have jobs requiring an education but have a lower social status.

Hindu castes also play a role in the rural economy. Hindu groups are involved in the hereditary occupations that fill the economic niches that support a farming-based economy. Small numbers of higher caste groups have remained in the country, and some of those people are large landowners, businessmen, and service providers.

In urban areas the great majority of people are laborers. There is a middle class of small businessmen and midlevel office workers, and above this is an emerging entrepreneurial group and upper-level service workers.

Symbols of Social Stratification. One of the most obvious symbols of class status is dress. The traditional garment for men is the lungi, a cloth tube skirt that hangs to the ankles; for women, the sari is the norm. The lungi is worn by most men, except those who consider themselves to have high socioeconomic status, among whom pants and shirt are worn. Also indicative of high standing are loose white cotton pajama pants and a long white shirt. White dress among men symbolizes an occupation that does not require physical labor. A man with high standing will not be seen physically carrying anything; that task is left to an assistant or laborer. Saris also serve as class markers, with elaborate and finely worked cloth symbolizing high status. Poverty is marked by the cheap, rough green or indigo cotton cloth saris of poor women. Gold jewelry indicates a high social standing among women.

A concrete-faced house and a ceramic tile roof provide evidence of wealth. An automobile is well beyond the means of most people, and a motorcycle is a sign of status. Color televisions, telephones, and electricity are other symbols associated with wealth.

Political Life

Government. The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy that includes a president, a prime minister, and a unicameral parliament ( Jayitya Shongshod ). Three hundred members of parliament are elected to the 330-seat legislature in local elections held every five years. Thirty seats are reserved for women members of parliament. The prime minister, who is appointed by the president, must have the support of a majority of parliament members. The president is elected by the parliament every five years to that largely ceremonial post. The country is divided into four divisions, twenty districts, subdistricts, union parishads, and villages. In local politics, the most important political level is the union in rural areas; in urban regions, it is the municipality ( pourashava ). Members are elected locally, and campaigning is extremely competitive.

Leadership and Political Officials. There are more than 50 political parties. Party adherence extends from the national level down to the village, where factions with links to the national parties vie for local control and help solve local disputes. Leaders at the local level are socioeconomically well-off individuals who gain respect within the party structure, are charismatic, and have strong kinship ties. Local leaders draw and maintain supporters, particularly at election time, by offering tangible, relatively small rewards.

The dominant political parties are the Awami League (AL), the BNP, the Jatiya Party (JP), and the Jamaat-i-Islami (JI). The Awami League is a secular-oriented, formerly socialist-leaning party. It is not stringently anti-India, is fairly liberal with regard to ethnic and religious groups, and supports a free-market economy. The BNP, headed by former Prime Minister Khaleda Zia, is less secular, more explicitly Islamic in orientation, and more anti-India. The JP is close to the BNP in overall orientation, but pushed through a bill in Parliament that made Islam the state religion in 1988. The JI emphasizes Islam, Koranic law, and connections to the Arab Middle East.

Social Problems and Control. Legal procedures are based on the English common-law system, and supreme court justices and lower-level judges are appointed by the president. District courts at the district capitals are the closest formal venues for legal proceedings arising from local disputes. There are police forces only in the cities and towns. When there is a severe conflict or crime in rural areas, it may take days for the police to arrive.

In rural areas, a great deal of social control takes place informally. When a criminal is caught, justice may be apportioned locally. In the case of minor theft, a thief may be beaten by a crowd. In serious disputes between families, heads of the involved kinship groups or local political leaders negotiate and the offending party is required to make restitution in money and/or land. Police may be paid to ensure that they do not investigate. Nonviolent disputes over property or rights may be decided through village councils ( panchayat ) headed by the most respected heads of the strongest kinship groups. When mediation or negotiation fails, the police may be called in and formal legal proceedings may begin. People do not conceive of the informal procedures as taking the law into their own hands.

Military Activity. The military has played an active role in the development of the political structure and climate of the country since its inception and has been a source of structure during crises. It has been involved in two coups since 1971. The only real conflict the army has encountered was sporadic fighting with the Shakti Bahini in the Chittagong Hill Tracts from the mid-1970s until 1998, after which an accord between the government and those tribal groups was produced.

Road workers undertake construction work in Decca. Laborers make up the vast majority of workers in urban areas.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Bangladesh is awash in social change programs sponsored by international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, Care, USAID, and other nations’ development agencies. Those organizations support project areas such as population control, agricultural and economic development, urban poverty, environmental conservation, and women’s economic development.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

The Grameen Bank created the popular microcredit practice, which has given the poor, especially poor women, access to credit. This model is based on creating small circles of people who know and can influence each other to pay back loans. When one member has repaid a loan, another member of the group becomes eligible to receive credit. Other nongovernmental organizations include the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, Probashi, and Aat Din.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Women traditionally are in charge of household affairs and are not encouraged to move outside the immediate neighborhood unaccompanied. Thus, most women’s economic and social lives revolve around the home, children, and family. Islamic practice reserves prayer inside the mosque for males only; women practice religion within the home. Bangladesh has had two female prime ministers since 1991, both elected with widespread popular support, but women are not generally publicly active in politics.

Men are expected to be the heads of their households and to work outside the home. Men often do the majority of the shopping, since that requires interaction in crowded markets. Men spend a lot of time socializing with other men outside the home.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. The society is patriarchal in nearly every area of life, although some women have achieved significant positions of political power at the national level. For ordinary women, movement is confined, education is stressed less than it is for men, and authority is reserved for a woman’s father, older brother, and husband.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Marriage is almost always an arranged affair and takes place when the parents, particularly the father, decide that a child should be married. Men marry typically around age twenty-five or older, and women marry between ages fifteen and twenty; thus the husband is usually at least ten years older than the wife. Muslims allow polygynous marriage, but its occurrence is rare and is dependent on a man’s ability to support multiple households.

A parent who decides that a child is ready to marry may contact agencies, go-betweens, relatives, and friends to find an appropriate mate. Of immediate concern are the status and characteristics of the potential in-law’s family. Generally an equal match is sought in terms of family economic status, educational background, and piousness. A father may allow his child to choose among five or six potential mates, providing the child with the relevant data on each candidate. It is customary for the child to rule out clearly unacceptable candidates, leaving a slate of candidates from which the father can choose. An arrangement between two families may be sealed with an agreement on a dowry and the types of gifts to be made to the groom. Among

The Sitara (star) mosque in Dacca. Religion plays a fundamental role in society, and almost every village has a mosque.

the educated the dowry practice is no longer prevalent.Divorce is a source of social stigma. A Muslim man may initiate a divorce by stating “I divorce you” three times, but very strong family pressure ordinarily ensures that divorces do not occur. A divorce can be most difficult for the woman, who must return to her parent’s household.

Domestic Unit. The most common unit is the patrilineally-related extended family living in a household called a barhi. A barhi is composed of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, and their adult sons with their wives and children. Grandparents also may be present, as well as patrilineally-related brothers, cousins, nieces, and nephews. The oldest man is the authority figure, although the oldest woman may exert considerable authority within the household. A barhi in rural areas is composed of three or four houses which face each other to form a square courtyard in which common tasks are done. Food supplies often are shared, and young couples must contribute their earnings to the household head. Cooking, however, often is done within the constituent nuclear family units.

Inheritance. Islamic inheritance rules specify that a daughter should receive one-half the share of a son. However, this practice is rarely followed, and upon a household head’s death, property is divided equally among his sons. Daughters may receive produce and gifts from their brothers when they visit as “compensation” for their lack of an inheritance. A widow may receive a share of her husband’s property, but this is rare. Sons, however, are custom-bound to care for their mothers, who retain significant power over the rest of the household.

Kin Groups. The patrilineal descent principle is important, and the lineage is very often localized within a geographic neighborhood in which it constitutes a majority. Lineage members can be called on in times of financial crisis, particularly when support is needed to settle local disputes. Lineages do not meet regularly or control group resources.


Infant Care. Most women give birth in their natal households, to which they return when childbirth is near. A husband is sent a message when the child is born. Five or seven days after the birth the husband and his close male relatives visit the newborn, and a feast and ritual haircutting take place. The newborn is given an amulet that is tied around the waist, its eye sockets may be blackened with soot or makeup, and a small soot mark is applied to the infant’s forehead and the sole of the foot for protection against spirits. Newborns and infants are seldom left unattended. Most infants are in constant contact with their mothers, other women, or the daughters in the household. Since almost all women breastfeed, infant and mother sleep within close reach. Infants’ needs are attended to constantly; a crying baby is given attention immediately.

Child Rearing and Education. Children are raised within the extended family and learn early that individual desires are secondary to the needs of the family group. Following orders is expected on the basis of age; an adult or older child’s commands must be obeyed as a sign of respect. Child care falls primarily to household women and their daughters. Boys have more latitude for movement outside the household.

Between ages five and ten, boys undergo a circumcision ( musulmani ), usually during the cool months. There is no comparable ritual for girls, and the menarche is not publicly marked.

Most children begin school at age five or six, and attendance tends to drop off as children become more productive within the household (female) and agricultural economy (male). About 75 percent of children attend primary school. The higher a family’s socioeconomic status, the more likely it is for both boys and girls to finish their primary educations. Relatively few families can afford to send their children to college (about 17 percent), and even fewer children attend a university. Those who enter a university usually come from relatively well-off families. While school attendance drops off overall as the grades increase, females stop attending school earlier than do males.

Higher Education. Great value is placed on higher education, and those who have university degrees and professional qualifications are accorded high status. In rural areas the opportunities for individuals with such experience are limited; thus, most educated people are concentrated in urban areas.

Bangladesh has a number of excellent universities in its largest urban areas that offer both undergraduate through post-graduate degrees. The most prominent universities, most of which are state supported, include: Dhaka University, Rajshahi University, Chittagong University, Jahngirnagar University, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, and Bangladesh Agricultural University. Competition for university admission is intense (especially at Dhaka University) and admission is dependent on scores received on high school examinations held annually, as in the British system

A young girl makes matchboxes in the slums of Khulna. There is a marked split between rich and poor in most of the country.

of education. University life in Bangladesh can be difficult. A four-year degree may actually require five to eight years to complete due to frequent university closings. The student bodies and faculties of universities are heavily politicized along national political party lines. Protests, strikes, and sporadic political party-based violence are common, as student groups play out national political agendas on their campuses and vie for members. Virtually every university student finds it easier to survive the system by becoming a member of the student wing of a political party.While the universities are the scenes of political struggle, they are also centers of intellectual and cultural creativity. Students may obtain excellent training in all fields, including the arts, law, medicine, and engineering. Universities are also somewhat like islands where some of the ordinary rules of social interaction are relaxed. For example, male– female interaction on campuses is more open and less monitored than in society as a whole. Dance and theater presentations are common, as are academic debates.


Personal interaction is initiated with the greeting Assalam Waleykum (“peace be with you”), to which the required response is, Waleykum Assalam (“and with you”). Among Hindus, the correct greeting is Nomoshkar, as the hands are brought together under the chin. Men may shake hands if they are of equal status but do not grasp hands firmly. Respect is expressed after a handshake by placing the right hand over the heart. Men and women do not shake hands with each other. In same-sex conversation, touching is common and individuals may stand or sit very close. The closer individuals are in terms of status, the closer their spatial interaction is. Leave-taking is sealed with the phrase Khoda Hafez.

Differences in age and status are marked through language conventions. Individuals with higher status are not addressed by personal name; instead, a title or kinship term is used.

Visitors are always asked to sit, and if no chairs are available, a low stool or a bamboo mat is provided. It is considered improper for a visitor to sit on the floor or ground. It is incumbent on the host to offer guests something to eat.

In crowded public places that provide services, such as train stations, the post office, or bazaars, queuing is not practiced and receiving service is dependent on pushing and maintaining one’s place within the throng. Open staring is not considered impolite.


Religious Beliefs. The symbols and sounds of Islam, such as the call to prayer, punctuate daily life. Bangladeshis conceptualize themselves and others fundamentally through their religious heritage. For example, the nationality of foreigners is considered secondary to their religious identity.

Islam is a part of everyday life in all parts of the country, and nearly every village has at least a small mosque and an imam (cleric). Prayer is supposed to be performed five times daily, but only the committed uphold that standard. Friday afternoon prayer is often the only time that mosques become crowded.

Throughout the country there is a belief in spirits that inhabit natural spaces such as trees, hollows, and riverbanks. These beliefs are derided by Islamic religious authorities.

Hinduism encompasses an array of deities, including Krishna, Ram, Durga, Kali, and Ganesh. Bangladeshi Hindus pay particular attention to the female goddess Durga, and rituals devoted to her are among the most widely celebrated.

Religious Practitioners. The imam is associated with a mosque and is an important person in both rural and urban society, leading a group of followers. The imam’s power is based on his knowledge of the Koran and memorization of phrases in Arabic. Relatively few imams understand Arabic in the spoken or written form. An imam’s power is based on his ability to persuade groups of men to act in conjunction with Islamic rules. In many villages the imam is believed to have access to the supernatural, with the ability to write charms that protect individuals from evil spirits, imbue liquids with holy healing properties, or ward off or reverse of bad luck.

Brahman priests perform rituals for the Hindu community during the major festivals when offerings are made but also in daily acts of worship. They are respected, but Hinduism does not have the codified hierarchical structure of Islam. Thus, a Brahman priest may not have a position of leadership outside his religious duties.

Rituals and Holy Places. The primary Islamic holidays in Bangladesh include: Eid-ul-Azha (the tenth day of the Muslim month Zilhaj ), in which a goat or cow is sacrificed in honor of Allah; Shob-i-Barat (the fourteenth or fifteenth day of Shaban ), when Allah records an individual’s future for the rest of the year; Ramadan (the month Ramzan ), a month-long period of fasting between dawn and dusk; Eid-ul-Fitr (the first day of the month Shawal, following the end of Ramzan ), characterized by alms giving to the poor; and Shob-i-Meraz (the twenty-seventh day of Rajab ), which commemorates the night when Mohammed ascended to heaven. Islamic holidays are publicly celebrated in afternoon prayers at mosques and outdoor open areas, where many men assemble and move through their prayers in unison.

Among the most important Hindu celebrations are Saraswati Puja (February), dedicated to the deity Saraswati, who takes the form of a swan. She is the patron of learning, and propitiating her is important for students. Durga Puja (October) pays homage to the female warrior goddess Durga, who has ten arms, carries a sword, and rides a lion. After a nine-day festival, images of Durga and her associates are placed in a procession and set into a river. Kali Puja (November) is also called the Festival of Lights and honors Kali, a female deity who has the power to give and take away life. Candles are lit in and around homes.

A young Bengali woman performs a traditional Manipuri dance. Almost all traditional dancers are women.

Other Hindu and Islamic rituals are celebrated in villages and neighborhoods and are dependent on important family or local traditions. Celebrations take place at many local shrines and temples.

Death and the Afterlife. Muslims believe that after death the soul is judged and moves to heaven or hell. Funerals require that the body be washed, the nostrils and ears be plugged with cotton or cloth, and the body be wrapped in a white shroud. The body is buried or entombed in a brick or concrete structure. In Hinduism, reincarnation is expected and one’s actions throughout life determine one’s future lives. As the family mourns and close relatives shave their heads, the body is transported to the funeral ghat (bank along a river), where prayers are recited. The body is to be placed on a pyre and cremated, and the ashes are thrown into the river.

Medicine and Health Care

The pluralistic health care system includes healers such as physicians, nonprofessionally trained doctors, Aryuvedic practitioners, homeopaths, fakirs, and naturopaths. In rural areas, for non-life-threatening acute conditions, the type of healer consulted depends largely on local reputation. In many places, the patient consults a homeopath or a nonprofessional doctor who is familiar with local remedies as well as modern medical practices. Professional physicians are consulted by the educated and by those who have not received relief from other sources. Commonly, people pursue alternative treatments simultaneously, visiting a fakir for an amulet, an imam for blessed oil, and a physician for medicine.

A nationally run system of public hospitals provides free service. However, prescriptions and some medical supplies are the responsibility of patients and their families.

Aryuvedic beliefs based on humoral theories are common among both Hindus and Muslims. These beliefs are commonly expressed through the categorization of the inherent hot or cold properties of foods. An imbalance in hot or cold food intake is believed to lead to sickness. Health is restored when this imbalance is counteracted through dietary means.

Secular Celebrations

Ekushee (21 February), also called Shaheed Dibash, is the National Day of Martyrs commemorating those who died defending the Bangla language in 1952. Political speeches are held, and a memorial service takes place at the Shaheed Minar (Martyr’s Monument) in Dhaka. Shadheenata Dibash, or Independence Day (26 March), marks the day when Bangladesh declared itself separate from Pakistan. The event is marked with military parades and political speeches. Poila Boishakh, the Bengali New Year, is celebrated on the first day of the month of Boishakh (generally in April). Poetry readings and musical events take place. May Day (1 May) celebrates labor and workers with speeches and cultural events. Bijoy Dibosh, or Victory Day (16 December), commemorates the day in 1971 when Pakistani forces surrendered to a joint Bangladeshi–Indian force. Cultural and political events are held.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Artists are largely self-supporting. The Bangla Academy in Dhaka provides support for some artists, particularly writers and poets. Many artists sell aesthetic works that have utilitarian functions.

Literature. Most people, regardless of their degree of literacy, can recite more than one poem with dramatic inflection. Best known are the works of the two poet–heroes of the region: Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nurul Islam. Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Although from West Bengal, he is respected as a Bengali who championed the preservation of Bangla language and culture. His poem “Golden Bengal” was adopted as the national anthem.

The most famous contemporary writer is Taslima Nasreen, whose novellas and essays question the Islamic justification for the customary treatment of women. Conservative religious authorities have tried to have her arrested and have called for her death for blasphemy. She lives in exile.

Graphic Arts. Most graphic arts fall within the domain of traditional production by Hindu caste groups. The most pervasive art form throughout the country is pottery, including water jugs and bowls of red clay, often with a red slip and incising. Some Hindu sculptors produce brightly painted works depicting Durga and other deities. Drawing and painting are most visible on the backs of rickshaws and the wooden sides of trucks.

Performance Arts. Bengali music encompasses a number of traditions and mirrors some of the country’s poetry. The most common instruments are the harmonium, the tabla, and the sitar. Generally, classical musicians are adept at the rhythms and melodic properties associated with Hindu and Urdu devotional music. More popular today are the secular male–female duets that accompany Bengali and Hindi films. These songs are rooted in the classical tradition but have a freer contemporary melodic structure. Traditional dance is characterized by a rural thematic element with particular hand, foot, and head movements. Dance is virtually a female-only enterprise. Plays are traditionally an important part of village life, and traveling shows stop throughout the countryside. Television dramas portray family relationships, love, and economic advantage and disadvantage. Plays in the cities, particularly in Dhaka, are attended by the educated young.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

Dhaka University offers courses in most academic disciplines. Sciences such as physics and chemistry have very good programs, although there is a lack of up-to-date laboratories and equipment. In the social sciences, the field of economics is particularly strong, along with anthropology, sociology, and political science. Many top students in the physical and social sciences study abroad, especially in the United States and Europe. The top engineering program is at the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. Electrical, ocean/naval, civil, and mechanical engineering have very good programs. Education in computer engineering is improving rapidly.


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